An analysis of the designing of districts in the electoral college

Smith, shortly after the election, was the first to introduce- on the floor of the House of Representatives- an Amendment to the Constitution embodying substantially that which was later to become the gist of the 12th Amendment mandating that the Presidential Electors vote separately for President and Vice-President, but no action was taken on his proposal.

The solution to the failure to gain a majority of the votes of the Electors proposed by the Committee on Unfinished Portions that 4 September of was to have the top five vote-getters as well as the possible case that two persons could have a majority of the Electoral Vote and be tied be considered by the Senate the President of the Senate was to receive the certifications of the votes cast by the Electors in their respective States in any event.

The only change witnessed was the return to choice by the General Court the legislature in Massachusetts. Wheeler of New York; Hendricks was, by definition, also- like his running mate Governor Tilden- one vote shy of the majority needed to elect!!

Nicholson- suffering from what we now know to be the flu- stayed home in bed. Clearly, the days were numbered for the use of legislative choice to "appoint" Presidential Electors as America was now well into the so-called "Era of Good Feelings" but, at the same time, heading headlong toward the democratic upheaval eventually to become known as the "Jacksonian Revolution".

The Constitution further provided that the balloting in the House for President was to be by States, not by individual Congressmen: The third election of brought more changes: Even so, however, it was a near thing again: The fifth election for President and now Vice-President! Massachusetts and New Hampshire- in "split-the-difference" fashion- combined direct election by the voters with a choice by the legislature: The next change to affect the Electoral College occurred with the adoption of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in Under the ancient and honorable schedule laid down back inthe Electors met in their respective States on Wednesday 6 December and cast their ballots for President and Vice-President.

But this was all done rather informally and, beyond this, ran headlong into the workings of the Electoral College: It did have two lasting effects: The only time the Senate alone would be part of the Electoral Process would be if- and only if- there was a tie between the two highest vote-getters not chosen President either by the Electoral College outright or, later, the House of Representativesin which case the Senate would choose the Vice-President.

So, the election for Vice President was- for the first and only time- thrown into the Senate: Connecticut had finally switched from legislative choice to "General Ticket" popular vote and Massachusetts abandoned legislative choice once and for all to adopt the same system its daughter State of Maine was using.

The roots of the present "winner-take-all" that is, to the winner of a statewide plurality goes the Electors Electoral College system was well in place by In all, 11 of the 17 states would allow their voters to cast ballots for Presidential Electors and, by extension, President and Vice-President: On 9 June, Gerry made a proposal that the national executive be chosen by the executives of the several States his argument was that- by this time- the Convention had already decided that the "first branch" [the House of Representatives] was to be chosen by the People and the "second branch" [the Senate] by the State legislatures: Pinckney giving Pinckney only one vote fewer than Adams in what turned out to be a losing Federalist cause.

The election of brought more changes to the methods of choosing the Presidential Electors: With the two newest States of Arkansas and Michigan adopting "General Ticket" as well for the Election, all but South Carolina the last bastion of legislative choice, as noted above - 25 of 26 states in all- were "appointing" their Electors by statewide popular vote of the People of these States.

The Electoral Vote would be counted alphabetically, rather than geographically as had hitherto been the practice, and any Electoral Vote from a State to which there was objection from any of the Senators and Representatives then assembled would be put aside and submitted to the Electoral Commission.

The presidential election of the infamous "Disputed Election"- was to provide a severe test for the Electoral College system, certainly as much a test of it as the Jefferson-Burr deadlock of had been.

That a permanent national executive was needed was clear to the delegates meeting in Philadelphia that May, but what should it be? By the way, with a few minor changes here and there [mostly dealing with the number of certificates and to whom they are to be sent: Upcountry" divisions became the basis of further "conservative" wanting merely to gain the rights of Englishmen due to these subjects of the British Empire vs.

This is clearly how the Framers expected this system would someday work The "right man", Thomas Jefferson, had now been finally elected President of the United States- but it had been a near thing!

Once the Constitution was ratified, however, the "Antifederalists"- as here narrowly defined- were no longer a factor: The person with the next highest number of votes would be Vice President. Supreme Court [4 Associate Justices 2 having been- before their appointment to the Court- Democrats, the other 2 having been Republicans in the past were specifically named and they would subsequently pick a 5th Associate Justice, who- it was presumed- would be the deciding vote in case of a tie among the other 14 "Commissioners"].

But a more ominous change hung over the meetings of the Presidential Electors in their respective States that December of Crawford of Georgia [who had been nominated by "King Caucus", thereby demonstrating the ineffectiveness of the Congressional Caucus by this time] as the "show horse" Calhoun of South Carolina had a majority of of the votes cast by the Electors for Vice-President and was thereby elected to that office, found that no one had gained a majority in the Electoral College and- for only the second time- the House of Representatives was now to be obliged to choose the new President.

South Carolina Congressman William L. But frontiersman Johnson was also known to cuss with impunity at a time when public men cursing in front of ladies or generally swearing with alacrity was still the moral equivalent of a "Monica Lewinsky scandal":Start studying POLS Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Who decides on who will be the members of the Electoral College in any given presidential election? a very important goal in designing the legislative branch was to create two legislative bodies and make them "as little connected. A FairVote Innovative Analysis. The effort in California to award the state's electoral votes by district is framed in terms of fundamental fairness.

The electoral college, usually an obscure quirk of the US political system, has drawn new scrutiny this year. Because Donald Trump lost to Hillary Clinton in the popular vote, yet was the clear.

The Electoral College is a unique method for indirectly electing the president of the United States. It was established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the U.S. Constitution and modified by the 12 th and 23 rd Amendments. The Electoral College consists of a total of members, one for each U.

The next change to affect the Electoral College occurred with the adoption of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in this Amendment allows the District of Columbia- even though it is not a State- to cast a popular vote for President and Vice-President and have a number of Electoral Votes counted by Congress on its behalf equal to the.

For more on the Electoral College, and proposals for its reform see our "Electoral College" page. Majority Requirements in Presidential Elections Of the 28 freest presidential democracies, 21 require the president to win with a majority of votes.

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An analysis of the designing of districts in the electoral college
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