Mishkin, The Real Interest Rate: In either case, quantity of bonds sold. P if and only if i That is, for any particular type of bond, the market price P moves inversely to the market interest rate yield to maturity i on this type of bond.
These procedures involve estimating expected inflation as a function of past interest rates, inflation, and time trends. Investment, B s, B s shifts out to right 3. Expected inflation rate Given an increase in the expected inflation rate, the supply curve for bonds shifts to the right.
Expected Inflation Rate An increase in the expected inflation rate lowers the expected real return rate on bonds, causing the demand curve to shift to the left. If supply shifts more than demand, bond price P decreases i rises. At higher prices P, the quantity demanded of bonds is lower buyers are discouraged At higher prices P, the quantity supplied of bonds is higher sellers are encouraged 5 Bond Market Equilibrium Occurs at a price P where the amount of bonds B d that people are willing to buy demand equals the amount B s that people are willing to sell supply.
Selected Key In-Class Discussion Questions and Issues How can standard Econ supply-demand analysis be applied to bond markets to determine equilibrium prices, interest rates, and quantities? Wealth, B d, B d shifts out to right 2. Liquidity An increase in the liquidity of bonds causes the demand curve to shift to the right.
Expected Interest Rate An increase in future expected interest rates i lowers the expected real return rate on bonds, causing the demand curve to shift to the left.
In most of the following slides, attention will be focused on the bond price P rather than on the interest rate i. Expected inflation calculated using procedures outlined in Frederic S. Government deficit Given an increase in the government budget deficit, the supply curve for bonds shifts to the right.
What kinds of factors cause shifting of the demand and supply curves for bonds?- As the interest rate rises, the expected return on money falls relative to the expected return on bonds causing a fall in the quantity of money demanded Equilibrium in the money market When the quantity demanded of money is lower than the money supply, the excess supply of money means that people are holding more money than they desire, so.
Nominal Interest Rates Nominal interest rates on 3-mo. Treasury Bills were about 1% in the fifties. In the eighties they were 15%. At the end ofthey were above 6%; in the middle ofthey were 1%.
What is the explanation for these interest rate fluctuations? behavior of long-term interest rates relatively easy to state what a short-term rate is and consequeflt1 no serious trouble was encountered in earlier chapters.
D the interest rate on a federal government note. The note is virtually risk-free in terms of default risk because the government has the ability to print money to pay its debt.4 1.
Interest rate behavior By this time we all know that a slowing economy is good news for borrowers, as it means lower interest rates. If the demand for borrowing capital recedes, then so do interest rates. You can see that as the maturity of these funds increases (along with the importance of interest rate movements) so too does the behavior gap.
Long-term bonds have had better returns, but also worse behavior by investors.Download