However, interpretation remains speculative, apart from the obvious Zodiac symbols and one diagram possibly showing the classical planets.
Stephan Vonfelt studied some statistical properties of the distribution of letters and their correlations properties which can be vaguely characterized as rhythmic resonance, alliteration or assonance and found that under that respect Voynichese is more similar to Chinese than European languages, although the numerical differences between Voynichese and Chinese look larger than those between Chinese and European languages.
The distribution of letters within words is also rather peculiar: Few repetitions occur among the thousand or so labels attached to the illustrations.
The herbal pictures that match pharmacological sketches appear to be clean copies of them, except that missing parts were completed with improbable-looking details. Four lines written in rather distorted Latin script, except for two words in the unknown script.
The bifolio consists of folios 78 verso and 81 recto ; it forms an integrated design, with water flowing from one folio to the other. Capital EVA letters are sometimes used to illustrate different variations of the same symbol. Many labeled drawings of isolated plant parts roots, leaves, etc.
Most of the characters are composed of one or two simple pen strokes. There is no obvious punctuation. In fact, many of the plant drawings in the herbal section seem to be composite: There are no indications of any errors or corrections made at any place in the document.
EDS did not show the presence of lead, while X-ray diffraction XRD identified potassium lead oxidepotassium hydrogen sulphate and syngenite in one of the samples tested.
Some parts of these drawings are larger and cleaner copies of sketches seen in the "pharmaceutical" section. The clear paint is likely a mixture of eggwhite and calcium carbonatewhile the green paint is tentatively characterized by copper and copper- chlorine resinate; the crystalline material might be atacamite or another copper-chlorine compound.
Each of these has 30 female figures arranged in two or more concentric bands. Based on modern analysis using polarized light microscopy PLMit has been determined that a quill pen and iron gall ink were used for the text and figure outlines; the colored paint was applied somewhat crudely to the figures, possibly at a later date.
Each section is typified by illustrations with different styles and supposed subject matter  except for the last section, in which the only drawings are small stars in the margin. The manuscript measures The astrological series of diagrams in the astronomical section has the names of 10 of the months from March to December written in Latin script, with spelling suggestive of the medieval languages of France, northwest Italy, or the Iberian Peninsula  f66r: Contains circular diagrams suggestive of astronomy or astrologysome of them with suns, moons, and stars.
The results were consistent for all samples tested and indicated a date for the parchment between and Words that differ by only one letter also repeat with unusual frequency, causing single-substitution alphabet decipherings to yield babble-like text.
Incryptanalyst Elizebeth Friedman described such attempts as "doomed to utter frustration". The lettering resembles European alphabets of the late 14th and 15th centuries, but the words do not seem to make sense in any language. A line of writing in the Latin script in the top margin f70v—f73v: Each page displays one or two plants and a few paragraphs of text, a format typical of European herbals of the time.
Analysis of the red-brown paint indicated a red ochre with the crystal phases hematite and iron sulfide.The Voynich manuscript is an illustrated codex hand-written in an unknown writing killarney10mile.com vellum on which it is written has been carbon-dated to the early 15th century (–), and it may have been composed in Northern Italy during the Italian Renaissance.
The manuscript is named after Wilfrid Voynich, a Polish book dealer. About ICMJE. The ICMJE is a small group of general medical journal editors and representatives of selected related organizations working together to improve the quality of medical science and its reporting. Journal on Web is an online manuscript processing system which allows you to submit articles and track their progress up to the proof stage.
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They are written according to a. Manuscript word counts exclude the title page, headings, acknowledgements, figures, tables, boxes, abstract, and references. Abstract word counts do include the headings.Download